When I decided to write this article, I taught I could cover all the necessary ground in this blogpost. However, the more I read and typed away, the more I realize that this can only be a form of introducing the problem and potential solution or things already in place or that are being spoken of. This matter is broader, and if you want to learn about it, try to do your research. It is more extensive and more profound that an article containing a few hundred words.


Climate change, according to Wikipedia occurs when changes in earth’s climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. The climate system comprises five interacting parts, the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), cryosphere (ice and permafrost), biosphere (living things), and lithosphere (earth’s crust and upper mantle). The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth’s interior. The climate system also gives off heat to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system determine the earth’s energy budget. When the incoming power is higher than the outgoing power, earth’s energy budget is positive, and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.

Discussing climate change is not a new phenomenon. The First World Climate Conference was held on 12-23 February 1979 in Geneva and sponsored by the WMO. It was one of the first major international meetings on climate change. Primarily a scientific conference, it was attended by scientists from a wide range of disciplines. In addition to the main plenary sessions, the conference organized four working groups to look into climate data, the identification of climate topics, integrated impact studies, and research on climate variability and change. The conference led to the establishment of the World Climate Programme and the World Climate Research Programme. It also led to the creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) by WMO and UNEP in 1988.

What are the causes of climate change and why has this been such an issue since 1979 and 40 years after, we are in a lot more trouble than ever. How will this affect us (human race, animals, and our planet) or changing us or will eventually do?

First things first, for as long as possible, people didn’t think it made any sense to protect “Mother nature”; I mean its Mother nature and she is grown; she can keep herself; Right? We know in 2019 that the answer is NO!!!

In 2016,According to the United Nations climate change website, an agreement called “The Paris Agreement” (French: Accord de Paris) which is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance was signed. This included significant contributors to emissions affecting the earth, signing a decision to consciously or carefully reduce their individual or joint actions contributing to the extinction of the planet.

Here are a few excerpts from the Paris Agreement:

Paris Agreement: essential elements

The Paris Agreement builds upon the Convention and for the first time brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects, with enhanced support to assist developing countries to do so. As such, it charts a new course in the global climate effort.

The Paris Agreement central aim is to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. Additionally, the agreement aims to strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change. To reach these ambitious goals, appropriate financial flows, a new technology framework, and an enhanced capacity-building framework will be put in place, thus supporting action by developing countries and the most vulnerable countries, in line with their national objectives. The Agreement also provides for enhanced transparency of work and support through a more robust transparency framework. Further information on key aspects of the Agreement can be found here.

That leads us further to asking what sectors contribute the most to this climate change and what are the implications directly and indirectly?

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Human activities are responsible for almost all of the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last 150 years. The largest source of greenhouse gas emissions from human activities in the United States is from burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, and transportation. In Africa,climate changepertains to aspects of climate change within the continent of Africa. Climate change is already a reality in Africa. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Africa is among the most vulnerable continents to climate change. A range of factors is responsible for Africa’s vulnerability to climate change. These include weak adaptive capacity, high dependence on ecosystem goods for livelihoods, and crude agricultural production system. The risks of climate change on agricultural production, food security, water resources, and ecosystem services would likely have a severe consequence on lives and sustainable development prospects in Africa. Managing this risk requires integration of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the management of ecosystem goods and services, and the agriculture production systems in Africa. 

Generally, observed surface temperatures have increased over Africa since the late 19th century to the early 21st century by about 0.5 °C while observed precipitation trends indicate spatial and temporal discrepancies in variability. The observed changes in temperature and precipitation vary regionally.

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